SAYC

Default principles
Offensive bidding
Bidding diagrams
Opening bids:
1 13+ | 3+ | Usually open 1 with 3-3 in minors; 1 with 4-4.
1 13+ | 4+ unless 4432 | Usually open 1 with 4-4 in minors
1 13-21 | 5+
1 13-21 | 5+
1NT 15-17 HCP | Balanced | Can have a 5 card major
2 STRONG | 22+ bal | 20+ unbalanced
2 11-15 hcp | good 6 card suit
2 11-15 hcp | good 6 card suit
2 11-15 hcp | good 6 card suit
2NT 20-21 HCP | Balanced
3 <11 hcp | 6+ card suit
3 <11 hcp | Can be a 6 card suit
3 <11 hcp | Can be a 6 card suit
3 <11 hcp | Can be a 6 card suit

  D         Takeout | 13+ (hcp + shortness) | Short , 3+ card support for // | (or any 17+)


After bidding 1
  1         6+ | 4+ | May have a 4 card major
  1       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4 |
   1      6+ | 4+ | 0-3 |
    1NT     MIN (13-15) | 0-3 |
     2    WK (6-10) | 4+ | Unbalanced | Opener must pass
     2    WK (6-10) | Usually 6+ | Opener must pass
     2    13+ | 4 | Game forcing
     2NT    INV (11-12) |
      3NT   14-15 | Top of range for earlier 1N bid
     3    INV (11-12) | 4+ |
     3    INV (11-12) | 6+ |
     3NT    GF (13-16) |
     4NT    17-19 | Quantitative | Natural invite to 6NT. Non-forcing.
    2     MIN (13-15) | Usually 6+ | 0-3 | Unbalanced
     2    WK (6-10) | 6+ good |
     2    13+ | 4 | Game forcing
     2NT    INV (11-12) |
      3   12-13 | 6+ |
      3NT   14-15 and/or strong suit
     3    INV (11-12) | 4+
     3    INV (11-12) | 6+ | Final game contract (if any) is usually 3NT, but may be 5 if opener is also unbalanced.
     3NT    GF (13-16) |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 4 | 0-3 |
     2    13+ | 4 | Game forcing
     2NT    INV (11-12) |
      3   12-13 | 6+ |
      3NT   14-15 | Top of range for earlier 2 bid
     3    INV (11-12) | 4 |
     3    INV (11-12) | 5+ |
     3NT    GF (13-16) |
    2     13-18 | 6+ | 5+ | Longer than
     3    WK (6-10) | 2+ | 0-2 |
     3    WK (6-10) | 3 |
     3NT    To play | 0-2 |
     4    To play | 3 |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 4 |
     2NT    INV (11-12) | 4 | Inviting 3N or 4. Non-forcing.
     3    INV (11-12) | Game try bid. Forcing to 3.
     3    INV (11-12) | Game try bid. Forcing to 3.
     3    INV (11-12) | Game try bid. Forcing to 3.
     3    INV (11-12) | Invites 4. Non-forcing.
     3NT    GF (13-16) | 4 | Choice of 3N or 4. Non-forcing.
      4   Preference to
     4    GF (13-16) | 4 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | 5+ | 4 | 0-3 | Usually 5-4-2-2 or 5-4-3-1 distribution.
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ | 0-3 |
    3     MID (16-18) | 4 | 0-3 |
    3     MID (16-18) | 4 |
     4    Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non-spade bids
     4    Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non- spade bids
     4    Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non- spade bids
     4    8-12 | 4 | No slam interest
     4NT    Blackwood ()
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6+ solid | Expects to run 9 tricks
    4     MAX (19-21) | 4 |
     4NT    Blackwood ()
   1NT      WK (6-10) | No 4 card major
    2     MIN (13-15) | 5+ |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 3-4 | Often 0-4-4-5 or 1-4-3-5
    2     13-18 | 6+ | 5+ | Longer than
     3    2+ | 0-2 |
     3    3 |
     4    3 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Often 0-4-4-5 or 1-4-3-5
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6+ solid | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | No 4 card major
    2     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Often 1-4-3-5 or 0-4-4-5
    2     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Often 3-4-1-5, 4-4-1-4 or 3-4-0-5
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper |
    3     MID (16-18) | 5+ | Suggests no stopper
    3NT     MAX (19-21) or expects 9 tricks
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | No 4 card major
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | Often 4-4-1-4 or 3-4-1-5
    3     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Suggests no stopper
    3NT     MAX (19-21) | stopper |
   2      WK (6-10) | 4 |
    2     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in spades, but has a good club holding and game interest.
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong diamond holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | Often 2-4-2-5. Non-forcing.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite. Suit-oriented hand.
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Notrump-oriented hand.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite. Suit-oriented hand.
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong diamond holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand with strong spade holding. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump oriented hand with strong spade holding. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Invitational to 4
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MAX (19-21) | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
    3NT     MAX (19-21) | Notrump-oriented hand. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    Preference to 4
    4     MAX (19-21) | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
    4     MAX (19-21) | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   2      13+ | 0-3 | Usually 0-3 | 4th Suit Forcing | Artificial game force
    2NT      stopper
     3    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
     3NT    To play | No slam interest
     4NT    17-19 | Quantitative | Balanced invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
    3     5+ | Suggests no stopper
     4    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
    3     3-4 |
     4    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
    3NT     MID (16-18) | stopper
     4    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
     4NT    Quantitative. Invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | No 4 card major
    3     12-13 | 6+ | Rejecting invite
    3     12-13 | 4 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-18 | No slam interest
    4NT     MAX (19-21) | Quantitative | Balanced invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | No 4 card major
    3NT     14-18 | stopper | No slam interest
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | No 4 card major
    3NT     14-18 | stopper | No slam interest
   3      INV (11-12) | 4 |
    3     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non-heart bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest, denies control. Subsequent non-heart bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest, denies or control. Subsequent non-heart bids
    4     14-18 | 4 | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3      13+ | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid |
    3NT     Balanced or semi-balanced with strong spade holding (i.e. KJxx or QJTx) and notrump-oriented values.
    4     Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non-heart bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non-heart bids
    4     Not willing to cooperate for slam. Suggests wasted spade values.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3NT      GF (13-16) | No 4 card major
   4      GF (13-16) | 4 |
   4NT      Blackwood
  1       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4 |
   1NT      WK (6-10) | 0-3 |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 6+ |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 4 |
    2     13-18 | 6+ | 5+ | Longer than
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3     MID (16-18) | 4 |
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | 0-3 |
    2     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Often 4-1-3-5 or 4-0-4-5
    2     MID (16-18) | 3 | Often 4-3-1-5
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper |
    3     MID (16-18) | 5+ | Suggests no stopper
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ |
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6+ solid | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      13+ | 0-4 | 4th Suit Forcing | Artificial game force
    2NT     MIN (13-15) or MAX (19-21) | stopper
     3    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
     3NT    GF (13-16) |
    3     5+ | Suggests no stopper
     4    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
    3     3-4 |
     4    17+ | 4-5 | Slam interest
    3NT     MID (16-18) | stopper
   2      WEAK (6-10) | 4 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | Often 4-2-2-5 distribution likely. Invites 3N or 4. Non-forcing.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite. Suit-oriented hand.
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Notrump-oriented hand.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite. Suit-oriented hand.
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong diamond holding and game interest.
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand with strong heart holding. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in diamonds, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand with strong heart holding. Choice of 3N or 4.
      4   Preference to
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Invitational to 4
     Pass    16-8 | Rejecting invite
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3NT     Notrump-oriented hand. Choice of 3N or 4.
     4    Preference to 4
    4     MAX (19-21) | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
    4     MAX (19-21) | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
    4     MAX (19-21) | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-3 |
    3     12-13 | 6+ | Rejecting invite
    3     12-13 | 4 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-18 | No slam interest
    4NT     MAX (19-21) | Quantitative | Balanced invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | 0-3 |
    3NT     14-18 | stopper | No slam interest
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | 0-3 |
    3NT     14-18 | stopper | No slam interest
   3      INV (11-12) | 4 |
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Denies control. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Denies or control. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     14-18 | 4 | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3NT      GF (13-16) | 0-3 |
   4      13+ | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid |.
    4     Not willing to cooperate for slam. Suggests wasted heart values.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   4      GF (13-16) | 4 |
   4NT      Blackwood
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | No 4 card major
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | Opener must pass
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have a 4 card major
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | May have a 4 card major
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | May have a 4 card major
   3NT      GF (13-16) | May have a 4 card major
   4NT      17-19 | Quantitative | Natural invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ strong | Opener is expected to pass
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have a 4 card major
    3     12-13 | 6+ | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | 3+ |
    3     14-15 | stopper | no stopper |
    3     14-15 | stopper | no stopper |
    3NT     14-15 | + stoppers |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    3     14-15 | stopper | no stopper |
    3     14-15 | stopper | no stopper |
    3NT     14-15 | + stoppers |
   3NT      GF (13-16) | + stoppers |
  2       MIN (13-15)| 4 | No 4 card major
   2      11+ | values | Suggests no stopper | Usually a try for 3NT
    2NT     12-13 | stopper |
    3     12-13 | 5+ | Implies no stopper
    3     12-13 | 4 | 5 | Implies no stopper
    3     14-15 | 3 | Usually 1-3-4-5 distribution.
    3NT     14-15 | stopper |
   2      11+ | values | Suggests no stopper | Usually a try for 3NT
    2NT     12-13 | stopper |
    3     12-13 | 5+ | Implies no stopper
    3     12-13 | 4 | 5 | Implies no stopper
    3     14-15 | 3 | Usually 3-1-4-5 distribution.
    3NT     14-15 | stopper |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Stoppers in both majors
    3     12-13 | 5-6 | Rejecting invite
    3     12-13 | 4 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | 5+ |
   3      17 + | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
   3      17 + | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
   3NT      GF (13-16) | + stoppers |
  2       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift
  2       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | May have a 4 card major
   3      5-6 | 5+
   3      7+ | 6+ | No 4 card major
   3      7+ | 4
   3      7+ | 4
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+ | No 4 card major
   3      8+ | Values in | Suggests no stopper
   3      8+ | Values in | Suggests no stopper
   3NT      8+ | + stoppers |
  3       MID (16-18) | 4 | No 4 card major
   3      8+ | Values in | Suggests no stopper
   3      8+ | Values in | Suggests no stopper
   3NT      8+ | + stoppers |
  3       MAX (19-21) | 4-5 | 0-1 | Splinter Raise | Subsequent non-diamond bids
   3NT      Natural with strong holding.
  3       MAX (19-21) | 4-5 | 0-1 | Splinter Raise | Subsequent non-diamond bids
   3NT      Natural with strong holding.
  3NT       MAX (19-21) or expects to have 9 winners. No 4 card major

  1         6+ | 4+ | Can bypass a 4 card suit if weak.
  1       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4 | 0-3 |
   1NT      WK (6-10) | 1-3 |
    2     MIN (13-15) |
    2     MID (16-18) | 4 | Often 4-1-4-5. Non-forcing.
     2    6-8 | 3 |
     2NT    6-8 |
     3    6-8 | 3-4 |
     3    8-10 | 4 |
     3NT    8-10 |
    2     13-18 | 6+ | 5+ | Longer than
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      WK (6-10) | 5-6 | 0-3 |
    2     13-18 | 6+ | 5+ | Longer than
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
    3     MID (16-18) | 5+ | Suggests no stopper
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong | Expects to run 9 tricks
   2      4th Suit Forcing | 13+ | Artificial game force
    2     3 | any strength
    2     4 strong | No stopper | 0-2
    2NT      stopper | 0-2 |
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     3 | 5-4-3-1 shape
    3NT      stopper | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | Often 4-1-3-5
     3    6-8 | 3-4 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
    3NT     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong | stopper | Expects to run 9 tricks
    4     ~16-17 hcp | 2-3 | Often 4-3-1-5
   2      WK (6-10) | 4 |
    3     MID (16-18) | 4-5 | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a good diamond holding and game interest.
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in diamonds, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Invitational to 4
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    4     ~16-17 hcp | Often 4 + 6 strong |
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-3 | May have 5
    3     12-13 | 5+ | Rejecting invite
    3     14-18 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    4 card suit |
     4    5 card suit |
    3NT     14-18 | 0-2 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | 0-3 |
    3     14-18 | 3 | Accepting invite, choice of games.
     3NT    4 card suit | stopper |
     4    4-5 |
    3NT     14-18 | 0-2 | Suggests stopper |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | 0-3! S |
    3     14-18 | 0-1 | Usually looking for stopper
    3NT     14-18 | 0-1 | stopper |
    4     14-18 | 2-3 | No slam interest
   3      INV (11-12) | 4 |
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Denies control. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Denies / control. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     14-18 | 4 | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3NT      GF (13-16) | No 4 card major
   4      GF (13-16) | 4 |
   4NT      Blackwood
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | No 4 card major
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | Opener must pass
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ |
    2     MIN (13-15) | 3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener must pass
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 5+ |
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of games
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 | Confirms side suit stoppers
   3      GF (13-16) | 3+ | Often looking for 3 card support
    3     3 |
    3NT     0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-16) |
   4NT      17-19 | Quantitative | Natural invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
  2       MIN (13-15) | 5+ (usually 6+) |
   2      11+ | 3+ | Natural but often looking for 3 card support
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener is expected to pass
   2      13+ | 5+ | 4+ | Longer than
   2NT      INV (11-12) |
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 3+ |
    3     14-15 | stopper (no stop)
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    3     14-15 | stopper (no stop)
    3NT     14-15 | Suggests + stoppers
   3NT      GF (13-16) | 4 card suit | + stoppers |
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      5+ | Any strength | Does not promise another call if opener makes a minimum rebid
   2      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | Asks opener to make another descriptive bid (i.e. NT with a stopper)
   2NT      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | 6-8 pts | Wants to sign-off at the 3-level.
   3      8+ | 3+
   3      8+ | 4+
   3      8+ | 6+
   3NT      8+ | stopper | Only 4 | Natural, no slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
  2       MIN (13-15) | 4 |
   2      INV (11-12) | Game try bid
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 4 card suit | Balanced notrump-oriented hand. Invites game in 3NT or 4.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite. Balanced, notrump-oriented hand.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite. Suit-oriented hand.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) |
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      17+ | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest | Subsequent non- suit bids
   3NT      GF (13-16) | 4 card suit | Balanced, notrump-oriented hand. Choice of 3NT or 4.
    4     Preference to
   4      17+ | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      17+ | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      GF (13-16) | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | 2-3 | May have 4
   3      5-6 | 5+
   3      Often looking for 3 card support
   3      7+
   3      7+ | 4 | 5
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MID (16-18)
   3      8+ | stopper | Suggests no stopper
   3      8+ | 5+ |
   3      8+ | stopper | Suggests no stopper
   3NT      8+ | Suggests + stoppers | Usually 4 card suit |
  3       14+ HCP | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Only forcing to 3
   3      WK (6-10) | Wasted values
   3      11+ | Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   3NT      INV (11-12) | 4 card suit | Strong holding
   4      11+ | Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       MID (16-18) | 4 |
   4      8+ | No slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid |
   3NT      INV (11-12) | 4 card suit | Strong holding
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest. Suggests wasted values.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       1-3 | 6+ solid |
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 | 6+ solid s
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand. No slam interest.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid |Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 |
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  1         6+ | 4+ | Can bypass a 4 card suit if weak.
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | 0-3 | May have 4 |
   Pass      1WK (6-10) |
   2      WK (6-10) | Usually unbalanced, would rather play 2 than 1N. Partner must pass.
   2      WK (6-10) | Unbalanced, would rather play 2 than 1N. Partner is expected to pass. *^
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 4+ | Choice of majors
    2     Preference to .
   2      WK (6-10) | Partner is expected to pass.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5 .
    3     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | Usually unbalanced.
    3     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 | stopper
   3      GF (13-16) | May have 5
    3     3 |
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
   3      GF (13-16) | May have 5
   3      INV (11-12) |
    3NT     14-15 | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 |
   3NT      GF (13-16) | Tends to deny 5 s.
   4NT      Quantitative | Natural invite to 6NT (18-19 hcp)
  2       MIN (13-15) |
   2      11+ | Technically natural but often looking for 3 card support.
   2      11+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | Partner is expected to pass.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Balanced or semi-balanced. Suggests stoppers in both +.
    Pass     112-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    Usually only a 4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12)
    3     14-15 | stopper (no stop)
    3     14-15 | stopper (no stop)
    3     14-15 | 3 |
    3NT     14-15 | + stoppers |
   3      INV (11-12)
    3NT     14-15 | + stoppers | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 |
   3NT      GF (13-16) | + stoppers.
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      ARTIFICIAL | Usually 4 | Asks opener to make another descriptive bid (i.e. NT with a stopper)
   2      5+ | Any strength | Does not promise another call if opener makes a minimum rebid
   2NT      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | 6-8 pts | Wants to sign-off at the 3-level.
   3      8+ | 3+
   3      8+ | 4+
   3      8+ | 6+
   3NT      8+ | stopper | Only 4 | Natural, no slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      5+ | Any strength | Does not promise another call if opener makes a minimum rebid
   2NT      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | 6-8 pts | Wants to sign-off at the 3-level.
   3      8+ | 3+
   3      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | Asks opener to make another descriptive bid (i.e. NT with a stopper)
   3      8+ | 4
   3      8+ | 6+
   3NT      8+ | stopper | Only 4 | Natural, no slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
   4      4 | No slam interest.
  2       MIN (13-15)
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 4 | Balanced | Invites 3NT or 4 |
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite | Balanced hand
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite | Suit-oriented hand
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced hand
     4    Correction back to
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced hand
     4    Correction back to .
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced hand.
     4    Correction back to .
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4. Balanced hand.
     4    Correction back to .
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3NT      GF (13-16) | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced hand.
    4     Correction back to .
   4      16+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      16+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      16+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      GF (13-16)
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | 2-3 | May have 4
   3      5-6 | 5+
   3      Often looking for 3 card support
   3      7+ | 4-5 | 5
   3      6+
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MID (16-18)
   3      8+, usually with stopper but may just be looking for 3 card support.
   3      8+.
   3      
   3NT      8+ | + stoppers |
  3       14+ | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Only forcing to 3.
   3      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   3      6-8(9). Minimum, suggests wasted values.
   3NT      Usually 10-12. Strong holding, notrump-oriented values. Often only 4 s.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       14+ | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Only forcing to 3.
   3      6-8(9). Minimum, suggests wasted values in .
   3NT      Usually 10-12. Strong holding, notrump-oriented values. Often only 4 s.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       MID (16-18)
   3NT      9-12 | 4 | Balanced hand with stoppers | No slam interest.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies or control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       MAX (19-21) | No 4 card major.
  4       4 | 6+ strong |
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Raise | Subsequent non-spade bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 | 0-1 | Splinter Raise | Subsequent non-spade bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 |
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  1NT         WK (6-10) | No 4 card major
  2       MIN (13-15) | May have a 4 card major
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      8-10 | values
   2      8-10 | values
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      6-8 | 3+
   3      6-8 | 4+
   3NT      8-10 | + stoppers
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      8-10 | values
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      6-8 | 3+
   3      8-10 | values
   3NT      8-10 | + stoppers
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      6-8 | 3+
   3      8-10 | values
   3      8-10 | values
   3NT      8-10 | + stoppers
  2NT       MID (16-18) | Balanced
   3NT      8-10 |
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+ |
   3NT      8-10 |
  3NT       MAX (19-21) or expects to have 9 winners.

  2         WK (6-10) |
  2       16+ | 4 | Usually a try for NT
  2       16+ | 4 | Usually a try for NT
  2       16+ | 4 | Usually a try for NT
  2NT       MID (16-18)
  3       MID (16-18)
  3       MAX (19-21) | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | 5+ | 0-1 | Splinter Bid | Slam interest
  3NT       MAX (19-21) or expects to have 9 winners

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift

  2NT         INV (11-12) | No 4 card major | Balanced
  3       12-13 | Rejecting invite
  3NT       14-18 | Accepting invite

  3         INV (11-12)
  3       14+ | values | Usually a try for 3NT
  3       14+ | values | Usually a try for 3NT
  3       14+ | values | Usually a try for 3NT
  3NT       14+ | No slam interest

  3         11+ HCP | 6+ | 0-1 | No 4 card major | Splinter Bid
  3NT       Balanced minimum with strong holding. No slam interest.

  3         11+ HCP | 6+ | 0-1 | No 4 spades | Splinter Bid
  3NT       Balanced minimum with strong holding. No slam interest.

  3         11+ HCP | 6+ | 0-1 | No 4 hearts | Splinter Bid
  3NT       Balanced minimum with strong holding. No slam interest.

  3NT         GF (13-15) | No 4 card major | Balanced


After bidding 1
  1         6+ | 4+ |
  1       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4 | 0-3 |
   1NT      WK (6-10) | 0-3 |
    2     MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4 | 4-5 | 4 |
     2    WK (6-10) | 3-4 |
     2    WK (6-10) | 3 |
     3    8-10 | 4+ |
    2     6+ | 5+ | > | May have minimum hcp.
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3NT     16-17 HCP | 6+ solid |
   2      4th Suit Forcing | 13+ | Artificial game force
    2     3 | any strength
    2     4 strong | No stopper | 0-2
    2NT      stopper | 0-2 |
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     3 | 5-4-3-1 shape
    3NT      stopper | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | 0-3 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper |
    3NT     16-17 HCP | 6+ strong | stopper |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | 0-3 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | 0-2 |
     3    6-8 | 3-4 | Rejecting invite
     3    6-8 | 6+ | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | 6+ |
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
    3NT     16-17 HCP | 6+ solid | stopper |
    4     16-17 HCP | 2-3 | Usually solid |
   2      WK (6-10) | 4 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | Invitational to 3NT or 4.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid.
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a good diamond holding and game interest.
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in clubs, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite.
     3NT    8-10 | Choice of 3N or 4 |
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite.
    3     MID (16-18) | Game try bid
     3    Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in diamonds, but has a strong heart holding and game interest.
     3    6-8 | Rejecting invite.
     3NT    8-10 | Choice of 3N or 4 |
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite.
    3     MID (16-18)
     4    8-10 | Accepting invite.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-3 | May have 5 |
    3     
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14+ | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14+ | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 5 | 5 |
    3     
    3     12-13 | 3 |
    3NT     14+ | 0-2 |
    4     14+ | 3 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | 0-3 |
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT     stopper | 4 card suit |
     4    5 card suit
    3NT     14+ | stopper | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | 0-3 |
    3NT     14+ | stopper | Usually singleton
    4     14-18 | 2-3 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 4 |
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Slam interest. Denies control. Subsequent non-spade bids
    4     14+ | No slam interest
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3NT      GF (13-15) | 0-3 | Tends to deny 5 .
   4      GF (13-15) | 4 |
   4NT      Blackwood () | 4 |
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | No 4 card major
   Pass      1WK (6-10)
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | Opener must pass.
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener must pass.
   2      5+ and 4+ ( > ) | Game forcing
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      GF (13-15)+ |
    3     Denies 3 card support.
    3     3 card support.
     4    
    3NT     0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ |
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12 | 6+
    3NT     14-15 | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Tends to deny 5 s.
   4NT      17-19 HCP | Quantitative | Natural invite to 6N. Non-forcing.
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ | 0-3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 3+ |
    2     MID (16-18) | 3 |
    2     MID (16-18)
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper |
     3NT    8-10 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ |
    2NT     MID (16-18) with stoppers.
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | stopper | May have 5 s.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14-18 | 6 | 4 |
    3     14-18 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-18 | 0-2
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of games
    3NT     14-15 | stoppers | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    3NT     14-15 | stopper | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper | Usually only 4 |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ | 0-3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener is expected to pass.
   2      5+ and 4+ ( > ) | Game forcing
   2NT      INV (11-12) |
    Pass     112-13. Rejecting invite.
    3     12-13 | 6 | 4 |
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 3+ |
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of games
    3     14-15 | stopper | Implies no stopper
    3NT     14-15 | + stoppers |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | + stoppers |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 4 |
   2      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    2NT     12-13 | Balanced.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14-15 | 4 | Choice of games
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Invites game in 3NT or 4 | Non-forcing
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced, 4 card suit | Choice of 3NT or 4.
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      GF (13-15) |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift.
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | 2-3 | May have 4
   3      Often looking for 3 card support
   3      5-6 | 5+
   3      6+
   3      7+ | 4 | 5
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+ |
  3       MID (16-18) | 4 |
   3NT      9-12 | Choice of 3NT or 4
  3       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   3NT      Usually 10-12 | Balanced, strong holding | No slam interest
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       16-17 HCP | 0-3 | 6+ solid |
  4       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       4 | 6+ solid |
   4      Minimum hand. No slam interest.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 |
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  1         6+ | 4+ |
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | 0-3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | Opener is expected to pass.
   2      WK (6-10) | 4+ | Opener must pass.
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 4+ | Choice of 2 or 2
    2     3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener must pass
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5 s.
    3     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      GF (13-15) | 4+ |
    3     3 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 5+
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 |
   3      GF (13-15) | 4+ | 5+
    3     3 card support.
    3NT     Denies 3 or 4 .
    4     4 card support
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+
    3NT     14-15 | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Tends to deny 5 .
   4NT      17-19 HCP | Balanced | Quantitative. Natural invite to 6NT. Non-forcing.
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 3+ |
    2     MID (16-18) | 3-4 | Usually trying for 3NT
    2     MID (16-18) | 3 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | Invites 3NT
     3NT    8-10 | Accepting invite
   2      4th Suit Forcing | 13+ | Artificial game force
    2     3 | any strength
    2NT      stopper | 0-2 | 2-3
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     4 | any strength
    3     
    3NT      stopper | 0-2 | 2-3 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | 0-2 |
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | stopper | May have 5
    3     12-13 | 5 + 5 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14+ | 6 | 4
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14+ | 0-2
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+
    3     14-15 | 3 |
    3NT     14-15 | stopper | Tends to deny 3 card support.
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    3NT     14-15 | stopper | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper | Tends to deny 5 |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ (rarely 5) |
   2      11+ | 4+
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener is expected to pass.
   2NT      INV (11-12) |
    3     12-13 | 6 | 4 | Rejecting invite
    3     12-13 | 6+ | Rejecting invite
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 | Accepting invite.
   3      13+ | 4+ | Technically natural but often checking for 3 card support.
    3     6+ | 0-2 |
    3     3 card support |
    3NT      stopper | 0-2 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 3+ |
    3     14-15 | stopper | Implies no stopper
    3     14-15 | 3 |
    3NT     14-15 | Tends to deny 3 card support.
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    3NT     14-15 | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | + stoppers | Usually only 4 |
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      5+ | Any strength | Does not promise another call if opener makes a minimum rebid
   2NT      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | 6-8 pts | Wants to sign-off at the 3-level.
   3      ARTIFICIAL | Only 4 | Asks opener to make another descriptive bid (i.e. NT with a stopper)
   3      8+ | 3+
   3      8+ | 4
   3      8+ | 6+
   3NT      8+ | stopper | Only 4 | Natural, no slam interest.
   4      4+ | Distributional, slam interest.
   4      4 | No slam interest.
  2       MIN (13-15) | 4 |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Invites 3NT or 4.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite, also balanced. Non-forcing.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced, strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced, strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced, strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced, strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Choice of 3NT or 4 | Balanced
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      GF (13-15) |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | 2-3 | May have 4
   3      Often looking for 3 card support
   3      5-6 | 5+
   3      7+ | 4-5 | 5
   3      6+
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift.
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+ | 0-3 |
   3      8+ | values | Usually looking for best game (3NT/4/5)
   3      8+ | 5+
   3NT      8+ | / stoppers |
  3       SPLINTER | 14+ hcp | 4 | 0-1 | Forcing to 3.
   3      Minimum | Suggests wasted values in .
   3NT      Usually 10-12. Strong holding, notrump-oriented values.
   4      11+ | Control showing cuebid | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      11+ | Control showing cuebid | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       MID (16-18)
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies or control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      8-12 | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       ~16-17 hcp | 6+ solid |
  4       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       4 | 6+ strong |
   4      Control showing cuebid. Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand. No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 |
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  1NT         WK (6-10) | No 4 card major |
  2       MIN (13-15) or MED (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 3+ |
   3      8-10(+) | 4+ (usually 5) | 2 bid improved hand
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ (rarely 5) | Responder must pass.
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2      8-10 | values
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      8-10 | values
   3      6-8 | 3+
   3NT      8-10 | + stoppers
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+| longer than |
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      8-10 | values
   3      6-8 | 3+
   3      8-10 | values
   3NT      8-10 | + stoppers
  2NT       MID (16-18) | May have a 4 card major
   3NT      8-10 |
  3       MAX (19-21) | 4+ | Strong Jump Shift.
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+
  3NT       

  2         11+. [Avoid this bid if possible]
  2       Catch-all rebid.
  2       14+
  2       14+
  2NT       14+
  3       14+
  3       Splinter Raise. 16+, 5+ card support.
  3       Splinter Raise. 16+, 5+ card support.
  3NT       

  2         WK (6-10) | 4+ |
  2       16+ | values | Usually a try for NT.
  2       16+ | values | Usually a try for NT.
  2NT       16+ | + stoppers |
  3       MED (16-18) | 5+ |
  3       SPLINTER | MAX (19-21) | 5+ | 0-1 | Slam interest.
  3       SPLINTER | MAX (19-21) | 5+ | 0-1 | Slam interest.
  3NT       

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  2NT         INV (11-12) | No 4 card major |
  3       12-13 | Rejecting invite.
  3NT       14+ | Accepting invite. No slam interest.

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift | No 4 card major

  3         INV (11-12) | 5+ | No 4 card major
  3       14+ | values | Usually a try for 3NT.
  3       14+ | values | Usually a try for 3NT.
  3NT       14+ | Stoppers, no slam interest.

  3         SPLINTER | 11+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 | No 4 card major
  3NT       Balanced minimum with strong holding. No slam interest.

  3         SPLINTER | 11+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 | No 4 card major
  3NT       Balanced minimum with strong holding. No slam interest.

  3NT         GF (13-15) | Balanced | No 4 card major


After bidding 1
  1         6+ | 4+ | If 6-10, 0-2
  1NT       MIN (13-15) | 5 | 0-3
   2      WK (6-10) | 4 | 5+ | Opener must pass.
   2      WK (6-10) | 4 | 5+ | Opener must pass.
   2      INV (11-12) | 3
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener must pass.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2
   3      GF (13-15) or better | 5+ | 4+ (rarely 3)
    3     0-2 | no stopper
     3    Either a) 6 or b) 5 strong without stop
     3NT     stopper
    3     3 |
    3NT     0-2 | stopper
   3      GF (13-15) or better | 5+ | 4+ (rarely 3)
    3     0-2 | no stopper
     3    Either a) 6 or b) 5 strong without stop
     3NT     stopper
    3     3 |
    3NT     0-2 | stopper
   3      GF (13-15) or better | 3-4 | [Bid 2 to invite]
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | 0-2 |
    3NT     14-15 | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Tends to deny 5
   4      GF (13-15) | 3-4 |
   4NT      17-19 HCP | Quantitative, natural invite to 6NT. Non-forcing.
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      4th Suit Forcing | 13+ | Artificial game force
    2     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    2     3 | any strength
    2NT      stopper | 0-2
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     6+ solid | 0-2 | 14+
    3     
    3NT      stopper | 0-2
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2     MID (16-18) | 3 |
     3NT    8-10 | stopper
     4    8-10
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | 0-2 |
     3NT    8-10
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+
    2NT     MID (16-18)| stopper
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5
    3     12-13 | 5+ | Rejecting invite
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14+ | 0-2 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 |
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of games
    3NT     14+ | stopper | Usually no 3 |
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+
    3NT     14+ | stopper | Usually singleton
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper |
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2     MID (16-18) | 3 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | 0-2 |
     3NT    8-10
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | stopper | Usually singleton |
    3     MID (16-18) | 6 + 4 |
    3     MID (16-18) | 2-3 |
   2NT      INV (11-12) | May have 5
    3     12-13 | 5+ | Rejecting invite.
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14+ | 0-2 |
   3      4th Suit Forcing | 13+ | Artificial game force
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     Natural | Extra length OR no stopper | 0-2
    3     3 | any strength
    3NT      stopper | 0-2
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ |
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 (might be only 5 if no stop)
    3     14+ | 3 | Choice of games.
    3NT     14+ | stopper | No slam interest.
   3      INV (11-12) | 3-4 |
    3     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     14+ | No slam interest.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ |
    3NT     14+ | stopper | Usually singleton .
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 6+ | Opener is expected to pass.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-1 | + stoppers
    3     12-13 | 6 + 4 | Rejecting invite.
    3     12-13 | 6 + 4 | Rejecting invite.
    3     14-15 | 3 | Choice of 3NT or 4.
     3NT    4 card suit.
     4    5 card suit.
    3NT     14-15 | 0-2 | Accepting invite.
   3      13+ | Often checking for 3 card support.
    3     4 | 0-2 |
    3     6+ | 0-2 |
    3     3 |
    3NT      stopper | 0-2 |
   3      13+ | Often checking for 3 card support.
    3     0-2 |
    3     3 |
    3NT      stopper | Tends to deny 3|
   3      INV (11-12) | 2 | (can be 3 with a bad 11)
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | Usually 0-1|
    3NT     14-15 | 0-1 |
    4     14-15 | 2-3 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | + stoppers |
   4      SPLINTER | 11+ hcp | 3 | 0-1 | Slam interest
   4      SPLINTER | 11+ hcp | 3 | 0-1 | Slam interest
   4      GF (13-15) with 2 -or- INV (11-12)+ with 3
  2       MIN (13-15) | 4|
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Invites game in 3NT or 4. Non-forcing.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite
    3NT     14-15 | Accepting invite, balanced hand
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4. Strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Game try bid.
    3     Counter-try. Can�t accept game try in , but has a strong holding and game interest.
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    3NT     14-15 | Choice of 3NT or 4. Strong / holdings.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12) | Invites 4 or 4 |
    3     12-13 | Rejecting invite.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3      INV (11-12)
    4     14-15 | Accepting invite.
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Choice of 3NT or 4. Balanced hand, strong / holdings.
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Later non- suit bids
   4      SPLINTER | 16+ | 0-1 | Later non- suit bids
   4      GF (13-15) | Choice of 4 or 4
   4      GF (13-15)
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       18-19 HCP | Balanced | 2-3
   3      7+ | 3+C | Often looking for 3 card support
   3      7+ | 3+ | Often looking for 3 card support
   3      11+ | 3-4 | Slam interest
   3      6+
   3NT      7+ | Balanced | No slam interest
  3       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift.
  3       MAX (19-21) | Strong Jump Shift.
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+ | 0-3 |
   3      8+ | 5+
   3NT      8+ | + stoppers | Usually 0-1 |
   4      8+ | 4+
   4      8+ | 4+
   4      8+ | 2 | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       MID (16-18) | 4 |
   3NT      8+ | Choice of 3N or 4
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies or control. Later non- suit bids
   4      8+ | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       
  4       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Denies control. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       SPLINTER | 19+ | 4 | 0-1 | Subsequent non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum hand, suggests wasted values in . No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  4       MAX (19-21) | 4 |
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  1NT         WK (6-10) | 0-2 | 0-3 | May be unbalanced
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
     3NT    8-10
    3     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
   3      8-10 | 4+ |
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 |
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3NT     14+ |
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
     3NT    8-10
    3     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
   3      8-10 | 4+ |
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 |
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3NT     14+ |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ |
  2       REVERSE | 17+ | 5+ and 4+ | longer than |
   2NT      6-8 | Natural, non-forcing
   3      8-10 | values
   3      8-10 | values
   3      6-8 | 2
   3      6-8 | 3
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+
   3NT      8-10 | 0-1|
   4      8-10 | 2 |
  4       

  2         11+ | 4+
  2       Any strength | 4+ |
   2      INV (11-12) | 3-4 | Non-forcing
    2     14-15* | Game try bid. *or slam interest
    2NT     Non-forcing.
    3     14-15* | Game try bid. *or slam interest
    3     14-15* | Game try bid. *or slam interest
    3     Invites 4
    3     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    3NT     Choice of 3NT or 4
    4     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    4     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    4     14+ | Accepting invite. No slam interest.
   2      13+ | values | Natural, game forcing
    2NT     
    3     3+ | any strength
    3     5+ | any strength
    3     6 | 4 |
    3     4 |
    3NT     
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Non-forcing
    3     4 |
    3     5 |
    3     6 | 4 |
    3NT     14+ | No slam interest
    4     6 | 4 |
    4NT     Quantitative 4N | Natural, invites 6NT
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | Non forcing
    3     
    3     14+ | 6 | 5 |
    3     Looking for a stopper -or- slam interest in
    3NT     14+ | stopper
    4     3+ | Slam interest
    4     6+ solid |
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | Non forcing
    3     6 | 4 |
    3     Looking for a stopper -or- slam interest in
    3NT     
    4     Invites 5
    4     6 solid | Choice of 4 or 5
    4NT     Blackwood ()
    5     
   3      13+ | 3-4 |
    3     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    3NT     No control. Asks partner to cuebid.
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Minimum, unwilling to cuebid for slam.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3      SPLINTER | 13+ | 4+ | 0-1 |
    3NT     Minimum, wasted values in
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     No control, slam interest.
    4     6+ | Choice of 4 or 5. No slam interest.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
    5     No slam interest
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper | Balanced
   4      13+ | 3-4 | No slam interest
  2       Any strength | 5+ | *Does not promise six hearts*
   2      13+ | 3-4 | Natural, game forcing
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-2 | Non-forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ (rarely 5) | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced with stoppers
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      GF (13-15) | 3 |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2       14+ | 4 | Game forcing
   2NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | Natural, balanced
   3      5+ | 0-3 | 0-2 |
   3      4 | any strength
   3      3 | any strength
   3      GF (13-15) | 4 |
   3NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | No slam interest
   4      3 |
  2NT       14+ | Balanced | Game forcing
   3      5+ | any strength
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      3-4 | any strength
   3NT      No slam interest
   4      3 | No slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced. Invites 6NT.
  3       4+ | Preferably a good 13+
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3NT      
   4      INV (11-12) | Distributional, no interest in 3NT.
   4      GF (13-15) | 3-4 | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      
  3       SPLINTER | 4+ | 0-1 |
  3       14+ | 6+ solid | Sets as trump | Slam interest
   3      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
  3       SPLINTER | 4+ | 0-1 |
  3NT       
  4       Invites 5 | Distributional, no interest in 3NT
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         11+ | 4+
  2       Any strength | 5+ | *Does not promise six hearts*
   2      13+ | 3-4 | Natural, game forcing
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-2 | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ (rarely 5) | Non-forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced with stoppers
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      GF (13-15) | 3 |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2       14+ | 4 | Game forcing
   2NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | Natural, balanced
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      5+ | 0-3 | 0-2 |
   3      3 | any strength
   3      GF (13-15) | 4 |
   3NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | No slam interest
   4      3 strong | no side suit controls
  2NT       14+ | Balanced | Game forcing
   3      5+ | any strength
   3      5+ | any strength
   3      3-4 | any strength
   3NT      No slam interest
   4      3 | No slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced. Invites 6NT.
  3       4+ | 14+ | Game forcing
   3      5+ | 0-2 | any strength
   3      3+ | any strength
   3      Natural, values or a cuebid for
   3NT       stopper | minimum hand
   4      4+ | No interest in 3NT (distributional or slam oriented)
   4      3 strong | no side suit controls
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      No slam interest
  3       4+ | Preferably a good 13+
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3NT      
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      INV (11-12) | Distributional, no interest in 3NT.
   4      GF (13-15) | 3-4 | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      
  3       14+ | 6+ solid | Sets as trump | Slam interest
   3      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
  3       SPLINTER | 4+ | 0-1 |
  3NT       
  4       Invites 5 | Distributional, no interest in 3NT
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         WK (6-10) | 3-4 |
  2       16+ | Game try bid.
   2NT      6-8 | Balanced | + values | Choice of 2NT or 3.
   3      Counter-try. Strong holding and game interest.
   3      Counter-try. Strong holding and game interest.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3      8-10 | 4+ | Choice of 4 or 4
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  2NT       Balanced. Invites game in 3NT or 4. Non forcing.
  3       16+ | Game try bid.
   3      Counter-try. Strong holding and game interest.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | 4+ good | Accepting invite
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       16+ | Game try bid.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | 4+ good | Accepting invite
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       MID (16-18) | Invites 4 | Non forcing
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  3NT       
  4       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  4       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  4       To play. Based on strength or distribution.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  2NT         JACOBY 2NT | 13+ | 4+ | Artificial game force.
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   3      No control | Asks partner to cuebid.
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3      Asks partner to cuebid.
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       18+ hcp | No singleton or void
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3NT      08Asks partner to cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3NT       15-17 hcp | No singleton or void
  4       5+ | 2 of top 3 honors | any strength
  4       5+ | 2 of top 3 honors | any strength
  4       12-14 hcp | No singleton or void
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  3         INV (11-12) | 3+ (usually 4) |
  3       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       14+ | No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  3         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       No slam interest.
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       No slam interest.
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         5+ | Usually less than 8 hcp | Singleton or void |

  4NT         Blackwood


After bidding 1
  1NT         WK (6-10) | 0-2 | May be unbalanced
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) | Non forcing
     3NT    8-10
    3     MID (16-18) | 5+ | Non forcing
    3     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
   3      8-10 | 4+ |
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 |
    3NT     14+ |
  2       MIN (13-15) or MID (16-18) | 4+ |
   2      WK (6-10) | 5+ | 0-2 |
   2      WK (6-10) | 2 |
    2NT     MID (16-18) |
     3NT    8-10
    3     MID (16-18) | values | Usually looking for 3NT
   3      8-10 | 4+ |
    3     14+ | values | Usually looking for 3NT
    3     14+ | 6 + 4 |
    3NT     14+ |
  2       MIN (13-15) | 6+ |
  3       MID (16-18) | 6+
   3NT      8-10 | 0-1|
   4      8-10 | 2 |
  4       

  2         11+ | 4+
  2       Any strength | 4+ |
   2      13+ | values | Natural, game forcing
    2NT     
    3     3+ | any strength
    3     5+ | any strength
    3     3 | 5-3-4-1 shape
    3     6 | 4 |
    3NT     
   2      INV (11-12) | 3-4 | Non-forcing
    2NT     Non-forcing.
    3     14+ | Game or slam try
    3     14+ | Game or slam try
    3     14+ | Game or slam try
    3     Invites 4
    3NT     Choice of 3NT or 4
    4     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    4     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    4     SPLINTER | 0-1 | Slam interest
    4     14+ | Accepting invite. No slam interest.
   2NT      INV (11-12) | Non-forcing
    3     4 |
    3     5 |
    3     6 | 4 |
    3NT     14+ | No slam interest
    4     6 | 4 |
    4NT     Quantitative 4N | Natural, invites 6NT
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | Non forcing
    3     Looking for a stopper -or- slam interest in
    3     14+ | 6 | 4+ |
    3NT     14+ | stopper
    4     3+ | Slam interest
    4     6+ solid |
   3      INV (11-12) | 4+ | Non forcing
    3     Looking for a stopper -or- slam interest in
    3     6 | 4 |
    3NT     
    4     Invites 5
    4     6 solid | Choice of 4 or 5
    4NT     Blackwood ()
    5     
   3      SPLINTER | 13+ | 4+ | 0-1 |
    3     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    3NT     Minimum, wasted values in
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     No or control, slam interest.
    4     6+ | Choice of 4 or 5. No slam interest.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
    5     No slam interest
   3      13+ | 3-4 |
    3NT     Asks partner to cuebid.
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
    4     Minimum, unwilling to cuebid for slam.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
   3NT      GF (13-15) | stopper | Balanced
   4      13+ | 3-4 | No slam interest
  2       4+ | any strength
   2      INV (11-12) | 3+ | Non-forcing
   2NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | Natural, balanced | Non-forcing
   3      6+ | Non-forcing
   3      
   3      4 | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 3+ |
   3NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | No slam interest
   4      GF (13-15) | 4 |
   4      3 |
  2       Any strength | 5+ | *Does not promise six spades*
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-2 | Non-forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ (rarely 5) | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced with stoppers
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      GF (13-15) | 3 |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       14+ | Balanced | Game forcing
   3      5+ | any strength
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      3-4 | any strength
   3NT      No slam interest
   4      3 | No slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced. Invites 6NT.
  3       4+ | Preferably a good 13+
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3NT      
   4      INV (11-12) | Distributional, no interest in 3NT.
   4      GF (13-15) | 3-4 | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      
  3       SPLINTER | 4+ | 0-1 |
  3       SPLINTER | 4+ | 0-1 |
  3       14+ | 6+ solid | Sets as trump | Slam interest
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
  3NT       
  4       Invites 5 | Distributional, no interest in 3NT
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         11+ | 4+
  2       4+ | any strength
   2      INV (11-12) | 3+ | Non-forcing
   2NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | Natural, balanced | Non-forcing
   3      
   3      6+ | Non-forcing
   3      4 | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 3+ |
   3NT      0-3 | 0-2 | stopper | No slam interest
   4      GF (13-15) | 4 |
   4      GF (13-15) | 3+ | No slam interest
  2       Any strength | 5+ | *Does not promise six spades*
   2      13+ | 3-4 | Natural, game forcing
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-2 | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ (rarely 5) | Non-forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced with stoppers
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      GF (13-15) | 3 |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       14+ | Balanced | Game forcing
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      5+ | any strength
   3      3-4 | any strength
   3NT      No slam interest
   4      3 | No slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced. Invites 6NT.
  3       4+ | 14+ | Game forcing
   3      5+ | 0-2 | any strength
   3      Natural, values or a cuebid for
   3      3+ | any strength
   3NT       stopper | minimum hand
   4      4+ | No interest in 3NT (distributional or slam oriented)
   4      3 strong | no side suit controls
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      No slam interest
  3       4+ | Preferably a good 13+
   3       values | Usually looking for 3NT. (May be a cuebid for slam)
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3NT      
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      INV (11-12) | Distributional, no interest in 3NT.
   4      GF (13-15) | 3-4 | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      
  3       14+ | 6+ solid | Sets as trump | Slam interest
   3      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
  3NT       
  4       Invites 5 | Distributional, no interest in 3NT
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         11+ | 5+
  2       Any strength | 5+ | *Does not promise six spades*
   2NT      INV (11-12) | 0-2 | Non-forcing
   3      13+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 6+ | Non-forcing
   3      INV (11-12) | 3 | Non-forcing
   3NT      GF (13-15) | Balanced with stoppers
   4      SPLINTER | 3 | 0-1 |
   4      To play
   4      GF (13-15) | 3 |
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  2NT       14+ | 0-2 | Natural, game forcing
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      4+ | any strength
   3      6+ | any strength
   3      3-4 | any strength
   3NT      No slam interest
   4      3 | No slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced. Invites 6NT.
  3       14+ | 4+ | Game forcing
   3      Usually natural
   3      6+ | any strength
   3      3+ | any strength
   3NT       stopper | Usually 11-12
   4      4+ | No interest in 3NT (distributional or slam oriented)
   4      3 strong | no side suit controls
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      No slam interest
  3       14+ | 4+ | game forcing
   3      6+ | any strength
   3      3+ |
   3NT      
   4      Distributional, no interest in 3NT.
   4      3+ | No slam interest.
   4NT      Blackwood ()
   5      
  3       3+ |
   3      3+ | Invites game in 4 or 4
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      GF (13-15) | 3+ | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       14+ | 6+ solid | Sets as trump | Slam interest
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
   4      Control showing cuebid
  3NT       
  4       Invites 5 | Distributional, no interest in 3NT
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2         WK (6-10) | 3-4 |
  2NT       Balanced. Invites game in 3NT or 4. Non forcing.
  3       16+ | Game try bid.
   3      Counter-try. Strong holding and game interest.
   3      Counter-try. Strong holding and game interest.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | 4+ good | Accepting invite
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       16+ | Game try bid.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | 4+ good | Accepting invite
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       16+ | Game try bid.
   3      6-8 | Rejecting invite.
   3NT      8-10 | Balanced | Strong + holdings | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      8-10 | 4+ good | | Choice of 4 or 4 |
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3       MID (16-18) | Invites 4 | Non forcing
   4      8-10 | Accepting invite.
  3NT       
  4       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  4       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  4       SPLINTER | 17+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
  4       To play. Based on strength or distribution.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  2NT         JACOBY 2NT | 13+ | 4+ | Artificial game force.
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   3      Asks partner to cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       0-1 | any strength
   3      Asks partner to cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
   4      Minimum game force | No slam interest
   4NT      Blackwood ()
  3       18+ hcp | No singleton or void
  3NT       15-17 hcp | No singleton or void
  4       5+ | 2 of top 3 honors | any strength
  4       5+ | 2 of top 3 honors | any strength
  4       5+ | 2 of top 3 honors | any strength
  4       12-14 hcp | No singleton or void
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  3         17+ | Strong Jump Shift.

  3         INV (11-12) | 3+ (usually 4) |
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       14+ | No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       Control showing cuebid. Later non- suit bids
  4       No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         SPLINTER | 9-12 hcp | 4+ | 0-1 |
  4       No slam interest.
  4NT       Blackwood ()

  4         5+ | Usually less than 8 hcp | Singleton or void |

  4NT         Blackwood


After bidding 1NT
  2         STAYMAN | 8+ | Asks for 4+ card major |
  2       No 4+ card major | Any strength
   2      8-9 | 5 | 4 | Invites game in 3NT or 4 | Non-forcing
   2      8-9 | 5 | 4 | Invites game in 3NT or 4 | Non-forcing
   2NT      8-9 | Invites 3NT | Non-forcing
   3      10+ | 5+ | May not have a 4 card major
   3      10+ | 5+ | May not have a 4 card major
   3      10-14 | 5 | 4 | Choice of 3NT or 4
   3      10-14 | 5 | 4 | Choice of 3NT or 4
   3NT      10-14 |
  2       4-5 | May have 4
   2NT      8-9 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
    3     good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    0-2 |
     4    3 |
    3     15 or bad 16 | 4 |
    3NT     good 16-17 | 2-3 |
    4     good 16-17 | 4 |
   3      10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
   3      10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
   3      8-9 | 4-5 |
    4     good 16-17 | Accepting invite
   3      10+ | 4+ | Agrees s | Slam interest. Asks opener to cuebid
   3NT      10-14 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
    4     4 |
   4      10-14 | 4-5 |
  2       4-5 | 2-3 |
   2NT      8-9 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
    3     good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     3NT    0-2 |
     4    3 |
    3NT     good 16-17 |
   3      10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
   3      10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
   3      10+ | 4+ | Agrees s | Slam interest. Asks opener to cuebid
   3      8-9 | 4-5 |
    4     good 16-17 | Accepting invite
   3NT      10-14 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing

  2         5+ | Any strength
  2       2+ |
   2      8-9 | 5 | 5 | Non-forcing
   2NT      8-9 | 5 | Invites 3NT or 4
    3     15 or bad 16 | 3+
    3NT     good 16-17 | Usually 2 |
    4     good 16-17 | 3+
   3      10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
   3      10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
   3      8-9 | 6+ | Invites 4
    4     good 16-17
   3      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   3NT      10-14 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    4     3+
   4      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   4      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   4      6+ | Mild slam interest
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced invite to 6 or 6NT | Non-forcing
    6     Accepting invite with fit
    6NT     Accepting invite, usually with 2
  3       good 16-17 | 4+ | Highly invitational (�super accept�)
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4NT      Blackwood ()

  2         5+ | Any strength
  2       2+ |
   2NT      8-9 | 5 | Invites 3NT or 4
    3     15 or bad 16 | 3+
    3NT     good 16-17 | Usually 2 |
    4     good 16-17 | 3+
   3      10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
   3      10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
   3      10+ | 5 | 5 |
   3      8-9 | 6+ | Invites 4
    4     good 16-17
   3NT      10-14 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    4     3+
   4      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   4      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   4      SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
   4      6+ | Mild slam try | Non-forcing
   4NT      Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced invite to 6 or 6NT | Non-forcing
    6     Accepting invite with fit
    6NT     Accepting invite, usually with 2
  3       good 16-17 | 4+ | Highly invitational (�super accept�)
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4      Control showing cuebid.
   4NT      Blackwood ()

  2         Transfer to 3 | 0-7 | 6+ card minor ( OR )
  3       Responder will pass or correct to 3
   3      0-7 | 6+ | To play

  2NT         8-9 | No 4+ card major unless 4333
  3       good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
  3       good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
  3NT       good 16-17

  3         6+ | 6-8 hcp | Invites 3NT | Good 6+ card suit without side suit strength | Non-forcing
  3NT       Accepting invite. Usually based on a 3+ card holding.

  3         6+ | 6-8 hcp | Invites 3NT | Good 6+ card suit without side suit strength | Non-forcing
  3NT       Accepting invite. Usually based on a 3+ card holding.

  3         6+ strong | Slam interest | Sets as trump, asks opener to cuebid
  3       Control showing cuebid.
  4       Control showing cuebid.
  4       Control showing cuebid.

  3         6+ strong | Slam interest | Sets as trump, asks opener to cuebid
  4       Control showing cuebid.
  4       Control showing cuebid.
  4       Control showing cuebid.

  3NT         10-14 | No 4+ card major unless 4333

  4         GERBER | Asks for aces
  4       0 aces
   4NT      To play.
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4       1 ace
   4NT      To play
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4       2 aces
   4NT      To play
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4NT       083 aces

  4         TEXAS | 6+ | game sign-off or slam going
  4       2+
   4NT      Blackwood ()

  4         TEXAS | 6+ | game sign-off or slam going
  4       2+
   4NT      Blackwood ()


After bidding 2NT
  3         STAYMAN | 5+ hcp | At least one 4+ card major
  3       No 4+ card major
  3       4+ | May have 4
  3       4+ | No 4

  3         5+ | any strength
  3       2+
   3NT      5+ hcp | Exactly 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      6+ | Mild slam interest | Non-forcing

  3         5+ | any strength
  3       2+
   3NT      5+ hcp | Exactly 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
   4      6+ | Mild slam interest | Non-forcing

  3         MINOR SUIT STAYMAN | At least 4-4 + | Slam interest
  3NT       No 4+ card minor | Non-forcing
  4       4 | game forcing
  4       4 | game forcing

  3NT         5-10 hcp

  4         GERBER | Asks for aces
  4       0 aces
   4NT      To play.
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4       1 ace
   4NT      To play
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4       2 aces
   4NT      To play
   5      GERBER | Asks for kings
    5     0 kings
    5     1 king
    5     2 kings
    5NT     083 kings
    6     4 kings
  4NT       083 aces

  4         TEXAS | 6+ | Game sign-off or slam going
  4       2+
   4NT      Blackwood ()

  4         TEXAS | 6+ | Game sign-off or slam going
  4       2+
   4NT      Blackwood ()


After bidding 2
  2         

  2         

  2NT         Feature Ask | Asks for side suit Ace or King

  3         

  3         

  4         

  5         To play. Often preemptive.


After bidding 2
  2         

  2NT         Feature Ask | Asks for side suit Ace or King

  3         

  3         

  3         

  4         To play. May be preemptive.


After bidding 2
  2NT         Feature Ask | Asks for side suit Ace or King

  3         

  3         

  3         

  3         

  4         To play. May be preemptive.


After bidding 2
  2         WAITING | any strength
  2NT       22-24 hcp | Balanced | Systems on
   3      STAYMAN | Asks for a 4+ card major
   3      TRANSFER to 3 | 5+ | any strength
   3      TRANSFER to 3 | 6+ | any strength
   3      MINOR SUIT STAYMAN | At least 4-4 + | Slam interest
    3NT     No 4+ card minor
    4     4 | game forcing
    4     4 | game forcing
   3NT      4+ hcp | Balanced | Usually no 4+ card major
   4      TEXAS transfer to 4 | 6+ | Game sign-off or slam going.
   4      TEXAS transfer to 4 | 6+ | Game sign-off or slam going.
  3NT       25-27 hcp | Balanced | Systems on
   4      STAYMAN | Asks for a 4+ card major
   4      TRANSFER to 4 | 5+ | any strength
   4      TRANSFER to 4 | 5+ | any strength
   4      MINOR SUIT STAYMAN | At least one 4+ card minor | Slam interest

  2         8+ hcp | 5+ | at least 2 of top 3 honors

  2         8+ hcp | 5+ | at least 2 of top 3 honors

  2NT         8+ hcp | Balanced | **Better to bid 2 waiting**

  3         8+ hcp | 5+ | at least 2 of top 3 honors

  3         8+ hcp | 5+ | at least 2 of top 3 honors


After bidding (1)
  D         Takeout | 13+ (hcp + shortness) | Short , 3+ card support for // | (or any 17+)
  Pass       Penalty | 5+ strong s
  1       0-8 | 4+ | Usually no 4 card major
  1       0-8 | 4+ (rarely 3)
  1       0-8 | 4+ (rarely 3)
  1NT       7-10 hcp | stopper | Balanced, no 4 card major
  2       11+ | Asks partner to pick a major | Usually 4+4
  2       8-11 | 4+
  2       8-11 | 4+
  2       8-11 | 4+
  2NT       11-13 hcp | stopper | Balanced, no 4 card major
  3       8-11
  3       8-11 | Distributional game invite | Non-forcing
  3       8-11 | Distributional game invite | Non-forcing
  3NT       13+ hcp | stopper | Balanced, no 4 card major
  4       To play
  4       To play

  1         7-16 hcp | 5+

  1         7-16 hcp | 5+

  1         7-16 hcp | 5+

  1NT         15-18 HCP | Balanced | stopper
  2       STAYMAN | 8+ | Asks for 4+ card major |
   2      No 4+ card major | Any strength
    2     8-9 | 5 | 4 | Invites game in 3NT or 4 | Non-forcing
    2     8-9 | 5 | 4 | Invites game in 3NT or 4 | Non-forcing
    2NT     8-9 | Invites 3NT | Non-forcing
    3     10+ | 5+ | May not have a 4 card major
    3     10+ | 5+ | May not have a 4 card major
    3     10-14 | 5 | 4 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    3     10-14 | 5 | 4 | Choice of 3NT or 4
    3NT     10-14 |
   2      4-5 | May have 4
    2NT     8-9 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
     3    good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
      3NT   0-2 |
      4   3 |
     3    15 or bad 16 | 4 |
     3NT    good 16-17 | 2-3 |
     4    good 16-17 | 4 |
    3     10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
    3     10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
    3     8-9 | 4-5 |
     4    good 16-17 | Accepting invite
    3     10+ | 4+ | Agrees s | Slam interest. Asks opener to cuebid
    3NT     10-14 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
     4    4 |
    4     10-14 | 4-5 |
   2      4-5 | 2-3 |
    2NT     8-9 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
     3    good 16-17 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
      3NT   0-2 |
      4   3 |
     3NT    good 16-17 |
    3     10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
    3     10+ | 5+ | 0-3 | May not have 4
    3     10+ | 4+ | Agrees s | Slam interest. Asks opener to cuebid
    3     8-9 | 4-5 |
     4    good 16-17 | Accepting invite
    3NT     10-14 | 0-3 | 4 | Non-forcing
  2       5+ | Any strength
   2      2+ |
    2     8-9 | 5 | 5 | Non-forcing
    2NT     8-9 | 5 | Invites 3NT or 4
     3    15 or bad 16 | 3+
     3NT    good 16-17 | Usually 2 |
     4    good 16-17 | 3+
    3     10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
    3     10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
    3     8-9 | 6+ | Invites 4
     4    good 16-17
    3     SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
    3NT     10-14 | 5 | Choice of 3NT or 4
     4    3+
    4     SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
    4     SPLINTER | 12+ hcp | 6+ | 0-1 |
    4     6+ | Mild slam interest
    4NT     Quantitative 4NT | Natural, balanced invite to 6 or 6NT | Non-forcing
     6    Accepting invite with fit
     6NT    Accepting invite, usually with 2
   3      good 16-17 | 4+ | Highly invitational (�super accept�)
    4     Control showing cuebid.
    4     Control showing cuebid.
    4     Control showing cuebid.
    4NT     Blackwood ()
  2       5+ | Any strength
   2      2+ |
    2NT     8-9 | 5 | Invites 3NT or 4
     3    15 or bad 16 | 3+
     3NT    good 16-17 | Usually 2 |
     4    good 16-17 | 3+
    3     10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
    3     10+ | 5 | 4+ | Looking for best game, may have slam interest
    3